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Tungsten

tantalum ← Tungsten → rhenium
Mo

W

Sg
Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table
General
Name, symbol, number Tungsten, W, 74
Element category transition metals
Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d
Appearance grayish white, lustrous
Standard atomic weight 183.84 (1)  g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2[1]
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 19.25  g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 17.6  g·cm−3
Melting point 3695 K
(3422 °C, 6192 °F)
Boiling point 5828 K
(5555 °C, 10031 °F)
Critical point 13892 K, {{{mpa}}} MPa
Heat of fusion 52.31  kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 806.7  kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 24.27  J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 3477 3773 4137 4579 5127 5823
Atomic properties
Crystal structure body centered cubic
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.36 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 770 kJ/mol
2nd: 1700 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 139  pm
Covalent radius 162±7  pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 52.8 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 173  W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 4.5  µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (annealed)
4290  m·s−1
Young's modulus 411  GPa
Shear modulus 161  GPa
Bulk modulus 310  GPa
Poisson ratio 0.28
Mohs hardness 7.5
Vickers hardness 3430  MPa
Brinell hardness 2570  MPa
CAS registry number 7440-33-7
Most-stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of tungsten
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
180W 0.12% 1.8×1018 y α 2.516 176Hf
181W syn 121.2 d ε 0.188 181Ta
182W 26.50% W is stable with 108 neutrons
183W 14.31% W is stable with 109 neutrons
184W 30.64% W is stable with 110 neutrons
185W syn 75.1 d β 0.433 185Re
186W 28.43% W is stable with 112 neutrons
References

Tungsten (pronounced /ˈtʌŋstən/), also known as wolfram (/ˈwʊlfrəm/), is a chemical element with the chemical symbol W and atomic number 74.

A steel-gray metal, tungsten is found in several ores, including wolframite and scheelite. It is remarkable for its robust physical properties, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the non-alloyed metals and the second highest of all the elements after carbon.[3] Tungsten is often brittle[4] and hard to work in its raw state; however, if pure, it can be cut with a hacksaw.[5] The pure form is used mainly in electrical applications, but its many compounds and alloys are used in many applications, most notably in incandescent light bulb filaments, X-ray tubes (as both the filament and target), and superalloys. Tungsten is also the only metal from the third transition series that is known to occur in biomolecules, and is the heaviest element known to be used by living organisms.[6][7]

Contents

History

In 1781, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite (at the time named tungstenite). Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing this acid.[8] In 1783, José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, in Spain, the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element.[9][10]

In World War II, tungsten played a significant role in background political dealings. Portugal, as the main European source of the element, was put under pressure from both sides, because of its deposits of wolframite ore. Tungsten's resistance to high temperatures and its strength in alloys made it an important raw material for the weaponry industry.[11]

Etymology

The name "tungsten" (from the Nordic tung sten, meaning "heavy stone") is used in English, French, Italian and many other languages as the name of the element. Tungsten was the old Swedish name for the mineral scheelite. The other name "wolfram" (or "volfram"), used for example in German, Spanish, Russian and in both Swedish and Danish, is derived from the mineral wolframite, and this is also the origin of its chemical symbol, W.[5] The name "wolframite" is derived from German "wolf rahm" ("wolf soot" or "wolf cream"), the name given to tungsten by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. This, in turn, derives from "Lupi spuma", the name Georg Agricola used for the element in 1546, which translates into English as "wolf's froth" or "cream" (the etymology is not entirely certain), and is a reference to the large amounts of tin consumed by the mineral during its extraction.[12]

Characteristics

Physical

Pure tungsten

In its raw form, tungsten is a steel-gray metal that is often brittle and hard to work, but, if pure, it can be worked easily.[5] It is worked by forging, drawing, extruding, or sintering. Of all metals in pure form, tungsten has the highest melting point (3,422 °C, 6,192 °F), lowest vapor pressure and (at temperatures above 1,650 °C, 3,002 °F) the highest tensile strength.[13] Tungsten has the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion of any pure metal. The low thermal expansion and high melting point and strength of tungsten are due to strong covalent bonds formed between tungsten atoms by the 5d electrons.[14] Alloying small quantities of tungsten with steel greatly increases its toughness.[3]

Isotopes

Naturally occurring tungsten consists of five isotopes whose half-lives are so long that they can be considered stable. Theoretically, all five can decay into isotopes of element 72 (hafnium) by alpha emission, but only 180W has been observed [15] to do so with a half-life of (1.8 ± 0.2)·1018 yr; on average, this yields about two alpha decays of 180W in one gram of natural tungsten per year.[16] The other naturally occurring isotopes have not been observed to decay, constraining their half-lives to be:[16]

182W, T1/2 > 8.3·1018 years
183W, T1/2 > 29·1018 years
184W, T1/2 > 13·1018 years
186W, T1/2 > 27·1018 years

Another 30 artificial radioisotopes of tungsten have been characterized, the most stable of which are 181W with a half-life of 121.2 days, 185W with a half-life of 75.1 days, 188W with a half-life of 69.4 days, 178W with a half-life of 21.6 days, and 187W with a half-life of 23.72 h.[16] All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than 3 hours, and most of these have half-lives below 8 minutes.[16] Tungsten also has 4 meta states, the most stable being 179mW (T½ 6.4 minutes).

Chemical

Main article: Tungsten compounds

Elemental tungsten resists attack by oxygen, acids, and alkalis.[17]

The most common formal oxidation state of tungsten is +6, but it exhibits all oxidation states from -1 to +6.[17] An oxidation state of -2 has also been reported in 2008.[18] Tungsten typically combines with oxygen to form the yellow tungstic oxide, WO3, which dissolves in aqueous alkaline solutions to form tungstate ions, WO2−4.

Tungsten carbides (W2C and WC) are produced by heating powdered tungsten with carbon and are some of the hardest carbides, with a melting point of 2770 °C for WC and 2780 °C for W2C. WC is an efficient electrical conductor, but W2C is less so. Tungsten carbide behaves similarly to unalloyed tungsten and is resistant to chemical attack, although it reacts strongly with chlorine to form tungsten hexachloride (WCl6).[3]

Aqueous tungstate solutions are noted for the formation of heteropoly acids and polyoxometalate anions under neutral and acidic conditions. As tungstate is progressively treated with acid, it first yields the soluble, metastable "paratungstate A" anion, W7O6−24, which over time converts to the less soluble "paratungstate B" anion, H2W12O10−42.[19] Further acidification produces the very soluble metatungstate anion, H2W12O6−40, after which equilibrium is reached. The metatungstate ion exists as a symmetric cluster of twelve tungsten-oxygen octahedra known as the Keggin anion. Many other polyoxometalate anions exist as metastable species. The inclusion of a different atom such as phosphorus in place of the two central hydrogens in metatungstate produces a wide variety of heteropoly acids, such as phosphotungstic acid H3PW12O40.

Biological role

Tungsten is an essential nutrient for some bacteria. For example, enzymes called oxidoreductases use tungsten similarly to molybdenum by using it in a tungsten-pterin complex. These enzymes reduce free carboxylic acids to aldehydes.[20] The first tungsten-requiring enzyme also requires selenium, suggesting that the tungsten-selenium pair may function analogously to the known molybdenum-sulfur pairing which is more commonly known in enzymes.[21] Tungsten, at atomic number 74, is the heaviest element known to be used by any living organism, with the next heaviest being iodine (Z = 53).

On 20 August 2002, officials representing the U.S.-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that urine tests on leukemia patient families and control group families in the Fallon, Nevada area had shown elevated levels of tungsten in the bodies of both groups.[22] Sixteen recent cases of cancer in children were discovered in the Fallon area, which has now been identified as a cancer cluster; although the majority of the cancer victims are not longtime residents of Fallon. However, there is not enough data to support a link between tungsten and leukemia at this time.[23]

In soil, tungsten metal oxidizes to the tungstate anion. It may substitute for molybdenum in certain enzymes, and in such cases the resulting enzyme would be inert. The soil's chemistry determines how the tungsten polymerizes; alkaline soils cause monomeric tungstates; acidic soils cause polymeric tungstates.[24]

Sodium tungstate and lead have been studied for their effect on earthworms. Lead was found to be lethal at low levels and sodium tungstate was much less toxic, but the tungstate completely inhibited their reproductive ability.[25]

Production

Wolframite
Tungsten output in 2005

Tungsten is found in the minerals wolframite (iron-manganese tungstate, FeWO4/MnWO4), scheelite (calcium tungstate, (CaWO4), ferberite (FeWO4) and hübnerite (MnWO4). These are mined and used to produce about 37,400 tons of tungsten concentrates per year in 2000.[26] China produced over 75% of this total, with most of the remaining production coming from Austria, Bolivia, Portugal, and Russia.[26]

Tungsten is extracted from its ores in several stages. The ore is eventually converted to tungsten(VI) oxide (WO3), which is heated with hydrogen or carbon to produce powdered tungsten.[8] It can be used in that state or pressed into solid bars.

Tungsten can also be extracted by hydrogen reduction of WF6:

WF6 + 3 H2 → W + 6 HF

or pyrolytic decomposition:[27]

WF6 → W + 3 F2 (ΔHr = +)

Tungsten prices are tracked on the London Metals exchange. The price for pure metal is around $20,075 per tonne as of October 2008.[28]

Applications

Closeup of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp.
Tungsten carbide ring

Because it retains its strength at high temperatures and has a high melting point, elemental tungsten is used in many high-temperature applications,[29] such as light bulb, cathode-ray tube, and vacuum tube filaments, heating elements, and rocket engine nozzles.[5] Its high melting point also makes tungsten suitable for aerospace and high-temperature uses such as electrical, heating, and welding applications, notably in the gas tungsten arc welding process (also called tungsten inert gas -TIG- welding).

Due to its conductive properties, as well as its relative chemical inertia, tungsten is also used in electrodes, and in the emitter tips in electron-beam instruments that use field emission guns, such as electron microscopes. In electronics, tungsten is used as an interconnect material in integrated circuits, between the silicon dioxide dielectric material and the transistors. It is used in metallic films, which replace the wiring used in conventional electronics with a coat of tungsten (or molybdenum) on silicon.[27]

The electronic structure of tungsten makes it one of the main sources for X-ray targets,[30] and also for shielding from high-energy radiations (such as in the radiopharmaceutical industry for shielding radioactive samples of FDG). Tungsten powder is used as a filler material in plastic composites, which are used as a nontoxic substitute for lead in bullets, shot, and radiation shields. Since this element's thermal expansion is similar to borosilicate glass, it is used for making glass-to-metal seals.[13]

The hardness and density of tungsten are applied in obtaining heavy metal alloys. A good example is high speed steel, which may contain as much as 18% tungsten.[31] Superalloys containing tungsten, such as Hastelloy and Stellite, are used in turbine blades and wear-resistant parts and coatings. Applications requiring its high density include heat sinks, weights, counterweights, ballast keels for yachts, tail ballast for commercial aircraft, and as ballast in race cars for NASCAR and Formula One. It is an ideal material to use as a bucking bar for riveting, where the mass necessary for good results can be achieved in a compact bar. In armaments, tungsten, usually alloyed with nickel and iron or cobalt to form heavy alloys, is used in kinetic energy penetrators as an alternative to depleted uranium but may also be used in cannon shells, grenades and missiles to create supersonic shrapnel. High-density alloys of tungsten may be used in darts (to allow for a smaller diameter and thus tighter groupings) or for fishing lures (tungsten beads allow the fly to sink rapidly). Some types of strings for musical instruments are wound with tungsten wires. Its density, similar to that of gold, allows tungsten to be used in jewelry as an alternative to gold or platinum.[5][32] Its hardness makes it ideal for rings that will resist scratching, are hypoallergenic, and will not need polishing, which is especially useful in designs with a brushed finish.[33]

Tungsten compounds are used in catalysts, inorganic pigments (e.g. tungsten oxides), and as high-temperature lubricants (tungsten disulfide). Tungsten carbide (WC) is used to make wear-resistant abrasives and cutters and knives for drills, circular saws, milling and turning tools used by the metalworking, woodworking, mining, petroleum and construction industries[3] and accounts for about 60% of current tungsten consumption.[34] Tungsten oxides are used in ceramic glazes and calcium/magnesium tungstates are used widely in fluorescent lighting. Crystal tungstates are used as scintillation detectors in nuclear physics and nuclear medicine. Other salts that contain tungsten are used in the chemical and tanning industries.[13]

Precautions

The data concerning the toxicity of tungsten is limited, but cases of intoxication by tungsten compounds are known, the lethal dose is estimated to be between 500 mg/kg and 5 g/kg for humans.[35][36] Tungsten is known to generate seizure and renal failure with acute tubular necrosis.[37][38][39]

The effects of tungsten within the environment are essentially unknown, a concern that has arisen in response to increasingly widespread use of the material as a fishing sinker, some of which are inevitably lost into water bodies. The same unknown variable applies whenever tungsten may be deposited into the environment, either knowingly or inadvertently.[40]

See also

  • Field emission gun
  • Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood by Oliver Sacks
  • Isotopes of tungsten

References

External links